This study is one of the first to describe the metabolic risk profile of lactating overweight or obese women at 8—12 weeks postpartum. During —, 66 overweight or obese Swedish lactating women without known diseases underwent detailed measurements of their metabolic profiles, dietary intake and general health before entering a lifestyle intervention trial. Baseline measurements took place between 8—12 wk postpartum.
Almost all women were exclusively breastfeeding their term infants.
The women were regarded as healthy, as reflected in the absence of diagnosed diseases, their own perceptions and in normal hemoglobin, albumin and fasting plasma glucose values. Four women were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. In these cases, underlying conditions included large waist circumference, low HDL cholesterol values, high triglyceride values and relatively high blood pressure. However, no significant differences between overweight and obese women were detected for LDL or total cholesterol levels.
Among generally healthy lactating women, obesity as compared to overweight is associated with increased metabolic risk. This cut-off is thus important also in the early postpartum period, and obesity among these women should warrant proper health investigation.
Macronutrient intake did not differ between the groups and, hence, cannot explain these differences.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. On a worldwide basis, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased alarmingly during the last decades .
These higher rates of overweight and obesity are also seen among pregnant women . As rates of obesity increase worldwide, so do the risks for obesity related diseases like cardiovascular diseases CVD and diabetes.
Epidemiological evidence exists for an increased risk for CVD and the metabolic syndrome with childbearing per se, with or without a weight increase as intermediate link  — . From a life course perspective, for women, any association between reproduction and metabolic risk factors is important .
Pregnancy imposes great stress on the metabolism. Little is known about the lipid metabolism of overweight and obese women during pregnancy. However aberrations in blood lipids in the third trimester have been observed in those with higher body mass index BMI compared to normal weight women  , . Postpartum metabolism is even less studied. Longitudinal data from normal weight women show that lipid metabolism gradually normalizes postpartum, depending on the degree of lactation .
The importance of degree of overweight for the metabolic state postpartum in lactating women is unknown. The aim of this paper is to compare the metabolic risk profile of generally healthy lactating overweight versus obese women at 8—12 weeks postpartum.
Expanding waistlines and metabolic syndrome: Researchers warn of new 'silent killer'
During —, pregnant women who were overweight or obese BMI 25— Women were recruited through advertisements at 15 antenatal care clinics in the region of Gothenburg, the second largest city of Sweden with deliveries per year. Among these, 66 women completed the baseline measurements.
The study received full ethical approval by the regional ethics board in Gothenburg, Sweden. All participants were informed about study protocol and signed an informed consent sheet. This study reports on results of the baseline measurements among the 66 women, who thereafter entered a randomized controlled trial LEVA, Livsstil vid Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning; Lifestyle for effective weight loss during lactation. Baseline measurements were initiated between 8—12 wks postpartum and were carried out at the laboratory of the Dept Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, after an overnight fast.
Anthropometric measurements included body weight to the nearest 0. Waist and hip circumferences were both assessed with a flexible, non-stretch tape measure with a spring loaded handle; waist circumference mid-way between the tenth rib and the iliac crest and hip circumference at the widest point over the buttocks. During the test, heart rate, a lead electrocardiogram, subjective symptoms and perceived exertion were recorded. The highest oxygen uptake measured during the test was used for maximum oxygen uptake VO2 max. Before the test, the women rested in the supine position for 5 min and blood pressure was measured using the auscultatory method on the right arm.
A fasting venous blood sample was taken by trained staff and sent to the accredited Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, for analyses of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL , high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL , triglycerides, high sensitive C-reactive protein CRP , hemoglobin Hb , albumin, glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 , thyroxine free T4 , thyroid stimulating hormone TSH.
No women used blood pressure or cholesterol lowering drugs. Women were provided with an electronic kitchen scale and instructed to weigh and record all foods and beverages to the nearest 1 g consumed for 4 consecutive days. Dietary intake was calculated with Dietist XP software version 3.
Metabolic Basis of Obesity | Rexford S. Ahima | Springer
Mean SD values for all 66 women are shown for normally distributed continuous variables, median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed continuous variables and proportions for categorical variables. These two groups were compared using independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. Significance level was set to 0. All analyses were performed in SPSS version No women had smoked during the recent pregnancy, although 25 had stopped smoking shortly before min 2 mo; max 2 yrs.
The four women three overweight and one obese who also offered their infants complementary feeds in the form of infant formula, provided these in the amount of Self-reported pre-pregnancy weight was In Table 1 , anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics at 8—12 wk postpartum are shown for the group as a whole as well as for women classified as overweight or obese at 8—12 wk postpartum separately. Science News. Metabolic Syndrome. ScienceDaily, 6 April Florida Atlantic University. Expanding waistlines and metabolic syndrome: Researchers warn of new 'silent killer': Caused by overweight and obesity, metabolic syndrome affects 40 percent of Americans age 40 and older.
Retrieved September 25, from www. A multidisciplinary work that has been carried out by biologists, Metabolic syndrome is a group of The report indicates that Sestrin 3 plays a critical role in regulating Below are relevant articles that may interest you. ScienceDaily shares links with scholarly publications in the TrendMD network and earns revenue from third-party advertisers, where indicated.
On the Keto Diet? Ditch the Cheat Day Boy or Girl? Living Well. For Authors We aim to bring about a change in modern scholarly communications through the effective use of editorial and publishing polices. Read More. Special Issues Frequently Asked Questions. Links Advanced knowledge sharing through global community… Read More. Take a look at the Recent articles. Metabolic risk factors in obesity and diabetes mellitus: implications in the pathogenesis and therapy Vineet Kumar Khemka and Anindita Banerjee.
Introduction Obesity is a complex trait caused by an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue and influenced by diet, developmental stage, age, physical activity and genetic makeup .
- Special edition using Filemaker Pro 7;
- Solubilities of inorganic and organic substances.
- Navigation menu;
- Metabolic Risk Profile among Overweight and Obese Lactating Women in Sweden;
- 33 Ways to Help with Numeracy: Supporting Children who Struggle with Basic Skills (Thirty Three Ways to Help with....).
Risk factors in obesity and T2DM There are multiple risk factors associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus which includes physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, family history, high risk ethnicity, cardiovascular disease CVD , dyslipidemia, hypertension, sleep apnoea, renal disease, and others . Chemokines Chemokines play a major role and their receptors are expressed in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obesity . Prevention and therapy The preventive measure is the prime key for the management of T2DM and obesity.
Future directions Diabetes and obesity, two chronic metabolic disorders, are alarmingly rising in the modern-day world bringing along with them hundreds and thousands of complications and morbidity. Trends Genet Am J Clin Nutr Int J Clin Pract The Lancet Equine Vet J Acta Clin Belg J Clin Invest Nature Diabetes Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 7: Am J Physiol E Diabetes Care 33 Suppl 1: S Biomark Med Metab J Interferon Cytokine Res Curr Opin Lipidol Diabetologia Endocrine Clin Chim Acta J Biol Chem Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Cell Metab 9: Science Endocr Rev J Clin Endocrinol Metab JAMA Nat Med 8: Circ Res Atherosclerosis N Engl J Med